Early signs and what to do
Understanding learning disabilities
Living and learning with learning disabilities
A learning disability is a serious and ongoing difficulty with one or more of the following areas of learning – reading, spelling, writing and maths. You can find out more in our article on learning disabilities
What are some early signs that my child might have a learning disability?
Early signs of possible learning disabilities include difficulty with language, like rhyming, or difficulty working with smaller sounds inside words, like identifying the ‘k’ sound in the middle of ‘monkey’.
Children might also have difficulty remembering lists of words, numbers, letters or concepts, like a list of instructions you give all in one go. Your child might also show ongoing and significant problems with reading, spelling and maths.
But having some difficulties doesn’t automatically mean your child has a learning disability. Some children can just take longer than others to begin to learn literacy and maths skills.
At what age does a learning disability start to show?
Learning disabilities can usually be diagnosed by the time your child is 7-8 years old. Early signs of learning disabilities are often picked up in the first two years of school.
Children often become quite good at covering up learning difficulties as they get older, so if you think your child might have a learning difficulty, it’s important to have it checked out early.
What should I do if I think my child has a learning disability?
If your child has ongoing and significant problems with reading, spelling or maths – even if your child has had a good start to his education – it might be useful to get a learning disabilities assessment.
If you’re concerned, it’s a good idea to talk to your child’s teacher as a first step. Schools have access to professionals who can provide an educational assessment for your child.
You might also like to talk to a health care professional like a speech pathologist or psychologist about a formal assessment.
Do learning disabilities run in families?
Learning disabilities can run in families. This means that parents, siblings, uncles and aunts might have problems with reading, spelling or maths skills that are similar to your child’s problems. If other members of your family have managed their learning disability in active and effective ways, they can be great role models for your child.
Are people who have learning disabilities often gifted?
People who have learning disabilities are no more likely to be gifted than other people. But people with all sorts of abilities can have learning difficulties, so there will be some who are gifted in different ways. For example, some have mechanical, academic, sporting and creative abilities.
Do more boys than girls have learning disabilities?
Boys and girls are equally likely to have learning disabilities.
My child writes letters back to front. Does this mean my child has dyslexia?
Writing letters back to front in the early years is a normal developmental stage. It’s not always a sign of dyslexia. But it might be a concern if a child continues to reverse letters and numbers in the middle and later years of primary school.
My child has trouble reading. Does my child have a learning disability like dyslexia?
On its own, trouble with reading doesn’t mean that a child definitely has a learning disability. There can be lots of reasons why a child has trouble reading, including a lack of opportunity to learn to read, or hearing or vision problems.
Can a learning disability be ‘cured’?
Learning disabilities can’t be ‘cured’. But with time and support, many people with learning disabilities learn to improve their skills. The earlier a child with learning disabilities gets expert help, the better the child’s chance of making good progress.
People with learning disabilities often manage well, particularly those who have learning disabilities that affect reading. It can sometimes be harder to improve spelling and maths skills, especially those that involve learning lists and tables of information. But there are ways around this, like using specially designed predictive typing software.
Does using a computer help?
Computers can help children who have learning disabilities. There are different types of software that can help with word prediction, spell-checking, and changing text to speech and speech to text. These software programs can help children get information without needing to read printed pages. They can also help your child with writing.
Literacy and maths software can get your child motivated about learning and reinforce what your child learns at school.
Another bonus of computer use is that printed pages are neat and easy to read. This is especially useful because messy handwriting is often a part of learning disabilities.
How can I know whether a treatment or therapy I saw advertised will be useful?
Looking carefully and critically at any advertised treatments or therapies will help you work out whether to believe their claims. In particular, you can look to see whether the claims are backed up by reliable and solid scientific research. Search out the evidence before committing your child to a program or spending any money on a treatment.
There is no ‘wonder cure’ for learning disabilities, despite what some ads say. But there are many simple, supportive and productive ways to help children with learning difficulties.
It’s a good idea to talk to teachers and other professionals, as well as non-profit organisations like AUSPELD. These people should be able to give you reliable advice about worthwhile options.
Good literacy and maths teaching, a focus on building resilience, and appropriate technology will help your child.
How can I help my child with a learning disability succeed?
Successful people who have learning disabilities:
- are self-aware – they know about their learning disability but also know their strengths
- ask for help and know where and when to do so
- have good resources to help them with their difficulties – for example, apps and computer programs
- are flexible and creative in finding ways around the challenges of having a learning disability
- keep trying, even when things are hard
- have good coping strategies to deal with emotions like frustration and embarrassment
- respond to problems by coming up with solutions.
There are lots of very successful people with learning disabilities who can be examples for your child. They include Richard Branson, Steve Jobs, Daniel Radcliffe and Keira Knightley.